Chattanooga Campaign | Wikipedia audio article
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
00:02:21 1 Background
00:02:30 1.1 Military situation
00:08:12 1.2 Reopening the Tennessee River
00:08:21 1.2.1 Opening the Cracker Line
00:11:45 1.2.2 Wauhatchie
00:14:47 1.2.3 Longstreet departs
00:17:10 1.3 Preparations for battle
00:21:49 2 Opposing forces
00:21:58 2.1 Union
00:23:09 2.2 Confederate
00:24:36 3 The Battles for Chattanooga
00:24:45 3.1 Orchard Knob
00:27:48 3.2 Lookout Mountain
00:30:42 3.3 Missionary Ridge
00:34:47 3.4 Rossville Gap
00:37:03 4 Retreat and pursuit
00:37:36 4.1 Ringgold Gap
00:38:54 5 Aftermath
00:41:17 6 Battlefield preservation
00:41:41 7 See also
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"The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing."
The Chattanooga Campaign was a series of maneuvers and battles in October and November 1863, during the American Civil War. Following the defeat of Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans' Union Army of the Cumberland at the Battle of Chickamauga in September, the Confederate Army of Tennessee under Gen. Braxton Bragg besieged Rosecrans and his men by occupying key high terrain around Chattanooga, Tennessee. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was given command of Union forces in the West, now consolidated under the Division of the Mississippi. Significant reinforcements also began to arrive with him in Chattanooga from Mississippi and the Eastern Theater. On October 19, Grant removed Rosecrans from command of the Army of the Cumberland and replaced him with Major General George Henry Thomas.
After opening a supply line (the "Cracker Line") to feed his starving men and animals, Grant's army fought off a Confederate counterattack at the Battle of Wauhatchie on October 28–29, 1863. On November 23, the Army of the Cumberland advanced from the fortifications around Chattanooga to seize the minor high ground at Orchard Knob while elements of the Union Army of the Tennessee under Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman maneuvered to launch a surprise attack against Bragg's right flank on Missionary Ridge. On November 24, Sherman's men crossed the Tennessee River in the morning and then advanced to occupy high ground at the northern end of Missionary Ridge in the afternoon. The same day, Eastern Theater troops under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker defeated the Confederates in the Battle of Lookout Mountain. The next day they began a movement toward Bragg's left flank at Rossville.
On November 25, Sherman's attack on Bragg's right flank made little progress. Hoping to distract Bragg's attention, Grant ordered Thomas's army to advance in the center of his line to the base of Missionary Ridge. A combination of misunderstood orders and the pressure of the tactical situation caused Thomas's men to surge to the top of Missionary Ridge, routing the Army of Tennessee, which retreated to Dalton, Georgia, fighting off the Union pursuit successfully at the Battle of Ringgold Gap. Bragg's defeat eliminated the last significant Confederate control of Tennessee and opened the door to an invasion of the Deep South, leading to Sherman's Atlanta Campaign of 1864.